New gTLDs are coming soon : we advise to get prepared asap !

New gTLDs are coming soon : we advise to get prepared asap !

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Nathalie Dreyfus, founder of Dreyfus in Paris attended the “Marketing and Brand Owner Awareness” session at ICANN’s Contracted Parties Summit which took place in Paris from May 6 to 9. This summit focuses solely on the mutual concerns and interests of the contracting parties, namely registry operators and registrars.  One of the main subject was the DNS abuse but not only.

One session highlighted the importance of increasing brand owner awareness to ensure the success of the next round of new gTLDs.

The new gTLD program is an ICANN initiative to expand the generic top-level domain system. It aims to enable the creation of new gTLDs to increase the choices available to the public, but also to encourage innovation in domain names and improve the user experience.

What is a gTLD?

A top-level domain corresponds to the suffix at the end of a website address, for example, <.com> or <.net>.

The first launch of new generic TLDs was launched in April 2012. With ever-changing market conditions and other relevant factors, this new program remains a challenge for brand owners, who need to think carefully about which relevant domain names to register in their current portfolio management strategy.

Lessons learned from the first gTLD cycle

In the first round of new gTLDs, 1,930 applications were submitted, mainly from North America and Europe. However, only a small proportion of these applications came from South America, Africa and the Asia-Pacific region, highlighting a geographical imbalance in participation.

Of these applications, 1,200 completed the process, but only 633 completed the Sunrise period – around a third. This period was designed to allow trademark owners to register their names before the gTLD was opened to the public. The low figures testify to the limited adoption of gTLDs by brands.

Use and challenges of trademark gTLDs

Many trademark gTLDs have been used for defensive purposes, often to prevent third parties from registering similar names. Some gTLDs have been abandoned following mergers, acquisitions or the disappearance of trademarks.

Nevertheless, brand gTLDs often remain underutilized, mainly due to high costs, lack of technical expertise, and concerns about managing and securing domain names.

Main challenges identified

The first edition of the gTLD program had several shortcomings, in particular the lack of applications from underserved regions.

High costs discourage brand adoption of gTLDs and not only in underserved regions.

Strategies for improving the next gTLD cycle

One of the main challenges of the first gTLD cycle was the lack of a tool to measure the program’s success. Stakeholders suggested a change of perspective. This new approach would make it possible to include more stakeholders and develop a coherent framework for measuring the success of the next cycle.

For the next cycle to be a success, it is essential to respond to the interests of customers by focusing on the real utility of gTLDs. This means moving beyond the idea of defensive registrations and focusing on concrete use cases.

Suggestions for brand owners

We recommend to start To diversify engagement, we recommend stepping up outreach efforts in underserved regions. Establishing a comprehensive communications plan would also be a good strategy for the next cycle.

In addition, as fees are high, it would make sense to significantly reduce or subsidize registration fees for underserved regions. But also provide free legal support through pro bono services.


This underlines the importance of awareness and innovation for the next gTLD cycle. Many TLDs applicants struggle to identify the value of a new gTLD.  That’s why we recommend to get started as soon as possible to discover the range of uses for a brand  top-level domains and prioritize the most valuable opportunities for achieving the brand objective.

Dreyfus & associés partner with an international network of Intellectual Property attorneys

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Legal Challenges of Current Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence Regulations: Understanding the AI Act and MiCA

Legal Challenges of Current Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence Regulations: Understanding the AI Act and MiCA

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Navigating the intersection of cutting-edge technologies such as blockchain and artificial intelligence (AI) with established legal norms presents a complex challenge to regulatory bodies. While these innovations offer substantial improvements in terms of operational efficiency and security measures, they simultaneously introduce unique legal dilemmas. This article aims to explore the dynamics between these technological advancements and existing legislative frameworks, highlighting the necessary adaptations to ensure that intellectual property rights are adequately safeguarded in the digital age.

The Regulation of Artificial Intelligence: An Evolving Landscape

The legal framework governing Artificial Intelligence (AI) is in a state of flux, marked by the absence of cohesive legislation on one hand, and the development of new regulatory proposals on the other. This changing tide was notably underscored by the National Consultative Commission on Human Rights (CNCDH) in its April 7, 2022, opinion on the proposed regulation for AI, widely referred to as the AI Act. The proposed Act seeks to categorize AI applications based on their risk level, offering a blueprint that could guide global AI policy. This movement towards regulating AI mirrors the approach taken with the Markets in Crypto Assets (MiCA) Regulation for blockchain technology, aiming to protect the digital ecosystem while fostering responsible innovation.

Fundamental Prohibitions in Artificial Intelligence Use

The specific prohibitions on particular uses of AI, as outlined in the AI Act, underscore the European Union’s commitment to safeguarding fundamental human rights. By distinguishing between different AI applications based on their potential for harm, the Act navigates the fine line between fostering innovation and ensuring the protection of rights. Article 5 zeroes in on practices deemed high-risk and unacceptable, such as “dark patterns” that subtly manipulate behaviors or target vulnerable groups. This emphasizes the establishment of ethical boundaries to curb potential misuses of AI technology.

Enhanced Requirements for AI Providers and Users

This legislation outlines the duties of both providers and professionals who deploy high-risk AI systems, underlining the importance of rigorous safety, transparency, and data governance protocols. Specifically, Article 29 of the AI Act obligates professional users, or deployers, to verify that providers adhere to the required regulatory standards. It is imperative for all stakeholders engaged with high-risk AI to adopt suitable technical and organizational safeguards to align with regulatory expectations. This involves a meticulous approach to choosing and applying AI technologies, as well as fostering a collaborative relationship with providers to ensure compliance with prevailing norms.

As we conclude our exploration of the intricacies and regulatory responses to artificial intelligence, encapsulating both the promise and the challenges of AI technologies, we pivot towards another transformative domain. This transition guides us from the realm of AI, where ethical considerations and human rights are paramount, to the innovative landscape of blockchain technology. Here, we delve into how blockchain’s integration into the legal framework represents a parallel journey of adaptation and regulation, echoing the complexities and potential we’ve observed with AI.

Understanding Blockchain and Its Legal Framework

 The integration of blockchain technology into the French legal landscape has steadily advanced, underscored by the enactment of Decree No. 2018-1226 in December 2018. This legislation highlights the technology’s capacity for creating a secure, immutable ledger, pivotal for data integrity and the traceability of financial transactions. Further legislative developments, notably the PACTE law of 2019, have laid down a legal framework for providers of digital asset services (PSAN), thereby recognizing the importance of crypto-assets within the digital economy. This recognition not only underscores the relevance of blockchain in modern regulatory contexts but also enhances the visibility of terms such as “blockchain legal framework,” “French blockchain integration,” and “digital asset regulation” in search engine optimization strategies.

Towards European Harmonization with the Markets in Crypto Assets Regulation

 In an effort to create a cohesive regulatory framework across Europe, the European Council ratified the MiCA (Markets in Crypto-Assets) Regulation in April 2023, targeting the establishment of uniform standards for the issuance of crypto-assets and the operation of digital asset service providers (DASP). This regulation delineates clear responsibilities for entities in the crypto-market, including a stipulation that certain service providers, like those offering crypto-asset portfolio management and investment advisory services, must secure formal approval. These requirements are specified within the 5th section of Article L.54-10-2 in the Monetary and Financial Code.

Although MiCA provides a broad regulatory oversight, it notably does not apply to non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and some decentralized crypto services, such as utility tokens including Ether (ETH) and Binance Coin (BNB), which has sparked debate. Moreover, MiCA prioritizes consumer safety, introducing measures against money laundering and mandating that providers furnish clear and precise information about their products and services. With enforcement anticipated by the end of 2024, MiCA aims to safeguard and streamline digital financial activities, facilitating the adoption of innovative technologies and the alignment of consumer protection standards throughout the European Union.

Successfully Navigating the Digital Landscape

 The convergence of blockchain technology and artificial intelligence (AI) represents an area of rapid evolution, brimming with potential yet fraught with complexities. Recent shifts in legislation and regulation seek to create a conducive environment for the responsible implementation of these advanced technologies, ensuring the protection of essential freedoms and the rights of intellectual property owners. In this dynamic and shifting terrain, businesses must prioritize strategic vision and continuous flexibility. Consulting with a knowledgeable partner such as becomes crucial for the protection and augmentation of intangible assets’ value, providing expert advice and brand defense across diverse industries.

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Launching AI in Healthcare: Legal Roadmap and Governance

Launching AI in Healthcare: Legal Roadmap and Governance

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Integrating Artificial Intelligence (AI) into healthcare is an exciting frontier for innovation. According to an INSERM report, AI is set to transform various sectors such as predictive medicine, precision healthcare, support for decision-making, companion robots, computer-assisted surgery, and epidemic prevention. Nevertheless, deploying AI in healthcare introduces a multifaceted set of challenges that span human, economic, ethical, ecological, political, and legal dimensions.

 Legal Framework for AI in Healthcare

In response to these challenges, the legal framework for AI in healthcare in France and the European Union is evolving to meet technical demands. France has taken steps such as establishing the Health Data Hub and simplifying access to national health data. Concurrently, the European Union has taken proactive steps like implementing the Data Governance Act to ease data reuse.

This AI ecosystem must navigate a complex mix of norms, including public health regulations, privacy laws, cybersecurity risks, and AI-specific regulations. Notably, the European AI Act, initiated by the European Commission and adopted in February 2024, sets out to standardize the application of AI by introducing overarching rules, legal definitions, and penalties for non-compliance.

However, this changing legal landscape brings its own set of challenges. Striving to protect privacy rights has led to a regulatory proliferation that could complicate the field, particularly against a backdrop of global competition with regions having fewer regulations. This complexity highlights the critical need to strike a balance between fostering innovation and research and protecting fundamental rights and privacy.

Governance of AI in Healthcare

The foundation of AI’s reliability in healthcare is its dependence on high-quality data, underscored by the GDPR’s strict privacy guidelines. The AI Act bolsters these efforts by mandating a “quality management system” for AI, ensuring transparency from development to deployment. This focus on data integrity is essential for establishing trust in AI applications within healthcare.

AI systems are categorized by the level of risk they present, from unacceptable to minimal. High-risk scenarios, especially those impacting healthcare delivery and patient outcomes, necessitate thorough evaluation and adherence to the utmost safety and ethical standards. The AI Act outlines this evaluation process, advocating for a balanced approach to risk and benefits and stringent certification for high-risk AI systems.

Compliance with the AI Act is therefore built on four pillars:

  • Ensuring the reliability of AI through quality training data and bias management;
  • Maintaining confidentiality and data protection;
  • Explicability of AI systems to users; and
  • Robust monitoring mechanisms throughout the AI’s lifecycle.

These pillars ensure AI systems are not only technologically advanced but also ethically responsible and legally compliant.

 Legal Roadmap for AI Deployment

As the healthcare sector increasingly integrates Artificial Intelligence (AI), both the creators and implementers of these technologies encounter a challenging legal landscape. Navigating the deployment of AI requires meticulous attention, especially as the regulatory framework continues to evolve.

For developers, this journey involves addressing a wide array of compliance challenges. They must ensure the legality of their training data and address any potential biases, while also adhering to EU regulatory standards and ensuring the technical resilience of their solutions. This process demands a thorough examination of data processing practices, the ethical implications of AI applications, and the strength of cybersecurity defenses. Additionally, maintaining transparency regarding contractual obligations and clearly communicating the capabilities and limitations of AI solutions is paramount.

On the other hand, healthcare entities looking to implement AI, such as hospitals exploring AI for diagnostic tools, face their own set of challenges. They need to critically evaluate the AI technologies for biases, particularly those that might affect minority representation, and carry out extensive impact analyses to understand the potential effects on patient care. This assessment process also includes the establishment of a contractual governance framework to ensure that the functionality of the AI is comprehensively documented, and all associated liabilities are clearly outlined. As healthcare increasingly embraces AI, both developers and deployers face a complex legal terrain. The roadmap for AI deployment, still taking shape under evolving regulations, demands careful navigation.


The deployment of AI in healthcare navigates a delicate balance between the potential for innovation and a myriad of ethical, legal, and practical challenges. As AI evolves, developers and deployers must operate within this regulatory framework to ensure their solutions are innovative, equitable, secure, and transparent. This approach will foster trust and effectiveness in healthcare applications.

At Dreyfus, we are here to support you in launching your AI projects in line with the intricate web of current and forthcoming regulations. Feel free to reach out for assistance!

Legal action against the use of a trademark in meta-tags is viable only if there’s a likelihood of confusion among consumers

Legal action against the use of a trademark in meta-tags is viable only if there’s a likelihood of confusion among consumers

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In the modern digital landscape, a strong online presence is essential for the success of a business. However, the pursuit of online visibility can lead to questionable practices, including the illicit use of trademarks for internet referencing. Both in France and at the European level, such actions can sometimes be deemed as trademark infringement, potentially leading to criminal penalties for those involved.

A pivotal clarification was made by the French Court of Cassation on October 18, 2023. In decision number 20-20.055, the court ruled that using someone else’s trademark as a meta-tag or keyword in online content is allowed under a specific condition: it must not mislead or confuse internet users about the source of the goods and services being advertised. This decision emphasizes the importance of clarity in online advertising, ensuring that consumers are not deceived about the origin of products or services they find online.

The Legal Framework of Trademark Use in France and Europe

In France, the illicit use of trademarks is clearly defined as an infringement of trademark law. This includes copying, using, or imitating a registered trademark to market similar products or services. The European Union’s introduction of the “trademark package” on December 15, 2015, has further empowered trademark owners. This legislative update has broadened the scope of actions that trademark owners can challenge as infringements of their rights.

In the digital world, trademark infringements frequently materialize through the registration of domain names imitating existing trademarks, or the use of these as keywords for search engine optimization. Such methods can be considered as violations of trademark rights by the judicial authorities, both in national jurisdictions in France and at European level. This legislative approach demonstrates a commitment to safeguarding the rights of brand owners in the digital context, by ensuring the protection of brand identity and integrity against unauthorized online exploitation.

Background to the judgment

AQUARELLE, a company specializing in online flower sales, initiated trademark infringement proceedings against SCT. At the heart of the case was SCT’s use of the “AQUARELLE” trademark as a keyword for internet referencing.

SCT had acquired the term “AQUARELLE” via the Google Adwords platform, resulting in users being redirected to their website ( via a link promoted under the title “Bouquets Toutes Occasions”. This site, falsely presenting itself as the “official site”, used terms relevant to the field of floral delivery in its descriptions and integrated the AQUARELLE trademark into its source code with the aim of improving its positioning on search engines, even though this manipulation was not directly visible to web users through their searches.

Court decision

The decision of the French Court of Cassation, dated October 18, 2023, established an important principle concerning the use of third-party trademarks in a website’s meta-tags. It was affirmed that trademark owners are entitled to object to the use of their trademark in the source code of a site, provided they can prove that such use suggests a link with their products or services, thereby creating a risk of confusion for the consumer. Thus, a complaint concerning the use of trademarks in meta-tags is only admissible if it demonstrates a potential risk of confusion for consumers. This ruling is in line with previous decisions of the European Court of Justice dated March 23, 2010.


The evolution of trademark law in the digital space, particularly with regard to the use of trademarks in meta-tags and digital advertising, highlights a delicate balance between improving online visibility and respecting intellectual property rights. The Court of Cassation’s ruling of October 18, 2023 marks a crucial milestone, clarifying that while digital use of trademarks is permitted, it must not mislead consumers as to the origin of products and services. This decision strengthens the rights of brand owners, while fitting into the broader legal framework of the European Union, ensuring the protection of brand integrity in the digital age.

For market players and SEO professionals alike, it is becoming essential to navigate digital marketing strategies with care, respecting both national and European legal frameworks. This highlights the importance of transparency and ethical advertising practices, ensuring that the use of trademarks does not violate the rights of others or mislead consumers.

Our firm, Dreyfus & associés, offers unrivalled expertise in guiding companies through the complexities of this legislation, providing strategic advice to ensure that their online marketing initiatives are not only effective but also compliant with current trademark regulations.

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Vigilance and cybersecurity: The fundamentals of an online brand protection strategy

Vigilance and cybersecurity: The fundamentals of an online brand protection strategy

In the digital age, brand protection and cybersecurity are converging to become a major challenge for companies. The rapid digitization of economic activities exposes brands to a wide range of cyber threats, requiring a robust and integrated protection strategy for their intangible assets.

Rising cyber-security attack complexity : a threat to brand integrity

As cyber-attacks become increasingly sophisticated, targeting intangible assets and brand integrity, businesses are urged to adopt advanced online security measures.

The Evolving Threat Landscape

Cyber-attacks are evolving, with a marked increase in precision and complexity. These threats, ranging from phishing and identity theft to significant data breaches, underscore the urgent need for robust online security protocols. Unlike isolated incidents of the past, the current trend signifies a persistent and evolving threat to brands’ non-physical assets.

Case Study: The 2020 Twitter Phishing Incident

A prime example of such vulnerabilities was the 2020 phishing attack on Twitter. High-profile accounts, including that of former U.S. President Barack Obama, were compromised to perpetrate a Bitcoin scam. This breach not only exposed critical security flaws in digital platforms but also severely eroded user trust in Twitter, tarnishing its reputation significantly.

Intellectual Property at Risk

The infringement of intellectual property, particularly trademarks, can have dire financial and legal consequences for businesses. Loss of revenue, reputational damage, and a decline in market value are among the significant risks companies face in the digital age.

The 2020 cyber-attack on RUAG, a Swiss aerospace and defence technology company, serves as a stark reminder of these risks. The incident profoundly impacted RUAG’s reputation, raising serious data security concerns among its customers and partners. Warren Buffet’s adage, “It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it,” aptly reflects the fragility of reputation in today’s digital landscape.

Strengthening brand security with advanced cybersecurity strategies

In light of these threats, integrating cybersecurity into brand protection strategies has never been more crucial. Businesses must remain vigilant, adopting proactive measures to safeguard against the ever-evolving landscape of cyber threats.

Proactive Monitoring: The First Line of Defence

A comprehensive brand protection strategy begins with proactive monitoring. This includes diligent management of domain names and vigilant oversight of brand presence across social networks and online platforms. Effective brand monitoring not only identifies potential threats but also enables swift action to mitigate any damage.

Cisco’s approach to brand protection through its “Protecting Our Brand” initiative serves as a prime example. By fostering collaboration across legal, IT, and marketing departments, Cisco demonstrates a unified front against counterfeiting and piracy. The initiative’s success highlights the effectiveness of cross-departmental teamwork and the use of cutting-edge brand monitoring tools in defending against infringements on intellectual property rights.

Leveraging Technology for Enhanced Protection

In the battle against cyber threats, advanced technologies like artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) are becoming indispensable. Their ability to perform predictive risk analysis and enable rapid responses is transforming the landscape of cybersecurity. These technologies provide a significant advantage in anticipating threats and implementing protective measures.

In this regard, employee awareness and continuous training are fundamental pillars. For example, the “Stay Safe Online” programme offered by the US-based National Cyber Security Alliance is a valuable resource, providing employees with a set of recommended cybersecurity practices. Such initiatives underscore the critical importance of individual vigilance in protecting brands in cyberspace.

 Build a Sustainable Brand Image in the Digital Era

The digital landscape presents unparalleled opportunities for enhancing brand visibility and growth. Yet, these opportunities bring about the crucial responsibility of safeguarding brands against evolving cyber threats.

Therefore, in conjunction with intellectual property rights, a robust cybersecurity framework is paramount. Using new technologies and fostering a culture of security within your business are critical steps in defending against cyber threats. Your Partner in Brand defence

Recognizing the need for specialized expertise in this dual endeavour, emerges as a premier partner. Offering comprehensive trademark registration advice and defence strategies, is equipped to support brands across various industries in their quest for digital sovereignty.

By partnering with experts like and committing to relentless vigilance and innovative security strategies, brands can thrive in the digital landscape.

Dreyfus law firm is in partnership with an international network of lawyers specialised in Intellectual Property law!

 For further insights into building a resilient brand identity and staying ahead of cyber threats, join us on social media and explore our range of services designed to protect your digital assets.